Chemical elements
  Californium
    Isotopes
    Energy
    Production
    Application

Californium Production





Production

Californium separation from the irradiated target material includes Americium separation; Curium, Berkelium, Plutonium and/or Curium in nuclear reactors. The regular isotope mixture with mass numbers 249 – 254 contains 60-90% 252Cf. In this way in the USA several grams of 252Cf are obtained each year. Californium traced after a thermonuclear explosion is much richer by 251Cf and 254Cf. Light neutron-deficient isotopes may be obtained during Curium bombarding by alpha-particles or in nuclear reaction with heavy ions such as Thorium bombardment by oxygen or uranium ions. Californium ions are separated by extraction, ion exchange as well as via extraction chromatography. Californium metal is reduced from its oxides and fluorides by lanthanum or lithium.


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